Model Answers for Mains

The Preamble to the Constitution is aimed to embody the fundamental values and the philosophy on which the Constitution is based. Elucidate.

The Preamble of the Constitution is expected to embody the fundamental values and the philosophy on which the Constitution is based. It also articulates the aims and objectives which the founding fathers en-visaged the polity to strive to achieve.

The words used in the Preamble our Constitution are some of the noblest. They embody the highest values that human ingenuity and experience have been able to devise thus far. The framers of the Constitution did not rest content with evolving the framework of the state; they also pointed out the goal as spelled out in the Preamble and the methodology for reaching that goal is elaborated in parts of the Constitution of India.

The Preamble to our Constitution, as adopted by the Constituent Assembly, speaks of "We the People of India" and makes a solemn resolve to constitute India into a "Sovereign, Democratic Republic" securing for all its citizens Justice, Liberty and Equality, and promoting among them all Fraternity. “Justice” is further manifested in social, economic and political contexts. “Liberty” as enshrined in the preamble includes the freedom of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship. Likewise the “Equality” means equality of status and that of the opportunity.

In fact, justice, liberty, equality and fraternity are the most essential concomitants of a truly democratic order. The explicit presence of these ideals further elucidates the concept of a democratic republic. The ultimate goal is that of "securing the dignity of the individual and unity of the nation."

Thus the preamble serves the purpose of declaring that 'The People of India' are the source of the Constitution. It clearly manifests that sovereignty in Indian polity vests in the people; that Indian polity is demarcated with fundamental rights and freedoms guaranteed to all the people.

Differentiate between “Due process of law” and “Procedure established by law”. In the light of apex court judgements, analyse the broadening of term procedure established by law of Art 21.

“Due process of law” and the “procedure established by law” are two different concepts having different nuances and connotations. The phrase ‘due process of law’ is used in the American Con-stitution while Art 21 of Indian constitution has used the term procedure established by law.

Art 21 of Indian constitution has used the term procedure established by law, which means that this protects the individuals only against the arbitrary executive action and not from arbitrary leg-islative action. This means that state can deprive the right to life and personal liberty of any per-son based on any law i.e. through a legislative action. Hence the validity of any law that prescribed any procedure cannot be questioned on the ground that law is unjust, unreasonable or unfair.

However, in Maneka Gandhi v Union of India the Supreme Court gave a very wider interpretation to Art 21. It observed that the procedure prescribed by law for depriving a person of his life and personal liberty must be “right, just and fair” and not “arbitrary, fanciful and oppressive,” other-wise it would be no procedure at all and the requirement of Article 21 would not be satisfied.

Thus, the “procedure established by law” has acquired the same significance in India as the “due process of law” clause in America. The term ‘procedure established by law’ is a narrower term in comparison to the term ‘due process of law’, because the former includes only procedural law (C.P.C, Cr. P.C. etc.) while the latter includes both substantive law (I.P.C., Hindu Marriage Act, etc.) and procedural law.

It is thus now well established that the “procedure established by law” to deprive a person of his life and personal liberty, must be just, fair and reasonable and that it must not be arbitrary, fanci-ful or oppressive, that the procedure to be valid must comply with the principles of natural justice.

Differentiate between the “equality before law” and “equal protection of law” as envisaged in the Article 14? Also explain how these two promote egalitarian society in a diverse country like India.

“Equality before the law” and “equal protection of law” are two cornerstones of Right to Equality in India. Although these two tenets play a pivotal role to ensure Equality, however their origin, manifestation and nuances are very different from each other.

Article 14 uses these two given expressions “equality before the law” and “equal protection of the law”. Equality before the law is an expression of English Common Law while “equal protection of laws” owes its origin to the American Constitution.

Equality before the law is a somewhat negative concept implying the absence of any special privi-lege in favor of any individual and the equal subjection of all classes to the ordinary law. On the other hand, the equal protection of laws is positive concept employing equality of treatment under similar circumstances.

Equality before the law means that among equals the law should be equally administered, that like should be treated alike. The right to sue and be sued, to prosecute and be prosecuted for the same kind of action should be same for all citizens of full age and understanding without distinctions of race, religion, wealth, social status or political influence. The equal protection of laws, on the other hand, does not mean that all laws must be general in character. The varying needs of different classes of person require separate treatment. From the very nature of the society there should be different laws in different places and the legislature controls. In fact, identical treatment in unequal circumstances would amount to inequality. So a reasonable classification is only not permitted but is necessary if society is to progress.

Thus, what Art 14 forbids is class legislation (equality before law) but it does not forbid reasonable classifi-cation (equal protection of law). The classification however must not be “arbitrary, artificial or evasive” but must be based on real and substantial distinction bearing a just and reasonable relation to the object sought to be achieved by legislation.

Explain the process of creating a separate state or renaming an existing one with mentioning the relevant constitutional provisions.

Alteration of the state boundaries or renaming them has been purposefully kept flexible by the founding fathers of our Constitution. This flexible approach can be understood in context of the prevailing ground realities of a plural, diverse and heterogeneous Indian society.

Article 3 of Indian Constitution has the provisions related to the issue of formation of new state(s). It also deals with the alteration of the areas, boundaries or the names of existing States. According to the provi-sion of this Article, Parliament may by law

a) Form a new State by separation of territory from any State or by uniting two or more States or parts of States or by uniting any territory to a part of any State.

b) Increase the area of any State.

c) Diminish the area of any State.

d) Alter the boundaries of any State.

e) Alter the name of any State.

However no Bill for any the above mentioned purpose(s) could be introduced in either House of Parliament except on the recommendation of the President.

The process for creating a new state starts with introduction of bill in the Parliament with a proposal to create, alter the boundaries, or to alter the name of any state. Article 3 makes it clear that the Parliament is the sole authority on making a decision on a new state. President refers the bill to the State Assembly for its views giving it a certain period of time. But, Parliament is not obligated to follow on the views of State Assembly. If the State Assembly does not express its opinion within the specified period of time, the bill could be introduced in the Parliament after the expiry of the specified period. Interestingly, the Bill related to any of the above mentioned purposes require only simple majority to get pass although passing of the Bill(s) of such kind result in the Amendment of the Constitution. When this bill is passed and gets president’s assent, it becomes a law and accordingly the changes are required in the Article 1 as well as in the First and Forth schedules of the Constitution of India.

In view of the prolonged relationship between Money Laundering and politics in India, there is now a growing feeling that efforts must be made to cleanse the system of political funding in our country. Discuss.

One of the biggest pies of the overall laundered money goes into formal economy as funding to major political parties and associated activities. This has been brought into testimonial from the fact that a significantly large number of politicians are already charged against the relevant sections of Money laundering Act by Enforcement Directorate (ED).

Money laundering is defined as a process to transform proceeds of criminal activities into legal and fair money through a number of manipulative steps. But in case of politics, it does not only facilitate proceeds of criminal activities but also helps to fund political activities- the soul of democracy, mainly from proceeds of crime and thus, promotes criminalisation of politics and essentially affects free and fair elections. Therefore, the demand of closer scrutiny of funding of political parties is desperate need of the hour.

The following implications of increasing nexus between politics and money laundering make a strong case for in support of efforts to cleanse the political funding in our country:

Political activities financed through laundered money increases the role of money power in the elections and hence, affecting the integrity of the electoral process severely.

It also does promote criminalisation of politics and encourage parties to give tickets to candidates having criminal enterprises so that they could fund the political activities without bothering much about financial resources.

Any possible patronage from political dispensation due to their own vested interests in political funding may deter anti-money laundering agencies to conduct free and fair investigations.

Discuss the role of people living in border areas in border security of the country. Also, enumerate various measures that the government has taken in order to ensure well-being of people living in border areas.

India has significantly long territorial border lines connecting with its seven neighbours in the eastern as well as the western part. The people living in border areas have enormous significance from security perspective. They do not only act as ‘eyes and ears’ of the security forces but also helps the country to maintain its territorial claims in the disputed regions. They could also positively contribute in preventing illegal cross-border smuggling of counterfeit currency, drugs and wildlife, if taken into confidence. Also, in case of war between India and its neighbours, they could also be readily mobilised as civilian aide to the troops taking charge at the borders. Thus, overall they could be proved significant strategic assets if they are taken into confidence by the government.

However, ground realities are far more different then the wishes. Living in border areas is difficult due to scarcity of resources. Recurring natural disasters, lack of basic infrastructure, cross border terrorism and a sense of being alienated from the mainstream development has discouraged people from living in the border areas. This is a high time that the government should take this issue sincerely

Recognising the gravity of the situation, the government has taken following steps to improve the well-being of the people living in border regions.

Under the Border Areas Development Program(BADP), the government has increased the spending on socio-economic development of people living in border districts. Under this same scheme, many infrastructure projects are being taken up to ensure the basic necessity of the people in these regions.

The government, for the purpose of devolution of financial resources to the states, has already considered the extent of border areas in a state as one of the critical factors for giving greater devolution of financial resources.

For improving connectivity, the government has already been building highways and roadways to the even remotest areas in the border areas for faster mobilisation.

“Section 124 (A) of Indian Penal Code (IPC) is like cannon that ought not to be used to shoot a mouse; but the arsenal also demands possession of cannons, mostly as a deterrent, and on occasion for shooting.” Discuss the above statement by giving relevant examples.

Section 124(A) of Indian Penal Code is related to Sedition and it is categorized as the “Offense against the State”. This Section was originally incorporated by the colonial British government for the longevity of the Imperial rule and to contain and curtail the nationalistic sentiments. In the post-independence era many liberals and scholars have advocated to scrap this Section terming it as a colonial hangover

It’s a fact that Sedition should only be slapped sparingly in a democratic and plural society, but another reality is threats to internal security and sovereignty that the country is facing in the form of proxy war in Kashmir demand for Khaistan, Naxal violence and turbulence in the North-Eastern states.

Section 124 (A) was recently in news because in the recent past political establishment has misused it to curb the dissent and alternative views. Figures of the National Crime Records Bureau reveal that in the last two years, there were a total of 77 sedition cases, of which only one resulted in conviction. An entire village in Kudankulam, Tamil Nadu had sedition cases slapped against it for resisting a nuclear power project. Adivasis of Jharkhand, resisting displacement, topped the list of those slapped with sedition in 2014. Most of these cases don’t end in conviction. It is not in rates of conviction but in the criminalisation of dissent that is harmful for our democratic and liberal ethos.

It would be recalled that in Kedar Nath Singh v. State of Bihar, a Division Bench of Supreme Court had laid down the criterion stressing that a necessary component of sedition involves rebellion or use of arms, in conjunction with demand for separation from or dismemberment of India. Thus sedition is relevant only in the context of a demand for secession. The need of the hour is to use it judiciously and sparingly and not to remove it completely.

Citizenship Amendment Bill (2016) although being a progressive piece of legislation contains various loopholes. Critically examine the above statement. Why various sections in Assam are vehemently opposing the Bill?

Citizenship Amendment Bill (2016) is progressive as it is a serious attempt to accommodate the refugees from the neighboring countries who are victim of violence, marginalization and discrimination. The flipside of the Bill is it ignores the tenet of equality as some of the minorities are excluded.

The object of the proposed Bill is to enable Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians who have fled to India from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh without valid travel documents, or those whose valid documents have expired in recent years, to acquire Indian citizenship by the process of naturalisation.

The proposed Bill recognises and protects the rights of refugees and represents a welcome change in India’s refugee policy. But it would have been appropriate if the Bill had used the term “persecuted minorities” instead of listing out non-Muslim minorities in three countries. To give an example, the Ahmadiyyas are not considered Muslims in Pakistan and are subject to many acts of discrimination. Other groups include members of the Rohingyas, who being Muslims are subjected to discrimination in Myanmar and have fled to India. Such a gesture would also have been in conformity with the spirit of religious and linguistic rights of minorities guaranteed under our Constitution.

The Bill has witnessed strong criticism from Assam as the issue of illegal migrants from Bangladesh is a simmering issue in the state since decade. Various sections is Assam are apprehensive about the fact that the Bill could legitimize the large number of Bangladeshi Hindu in the state who are culturally very different from the local inhabitants.

Loan waiving can provide a short-term relief to a limited section of farmers; it has a meager chance of bringing farmers out of the vicious cycle of indebtedness. Critically examine

Strengthening the repayment capacity of farmers by improving and stabilising their income is the only way to keep them out of distress.

It covers only a tiny fraction of farmers. According to 2012-13 NSS-SAS, 48% of the agricultural households did not have any outstanding loan.

Loans taken by cultivators from non-institutional sources, which involve high interest rate, is rising faster than from institutional sources.

The farmers investing from their own savings and those borrowing from non-institutional sources are equally vulnerable to weather and market risks. But all such households are outside the purview of loan waiver.

Only a partial relief to the indebted farmers as about half of the institutional borrowing of a cultivator is for non-farm purposes.

It severely erodes the credit culture, with dire long-run consequences to the banking business

The scheme is prone to serious exclusion and inclusion errors, as evidenced by the Comptroller and Auditor General’s (CAG) findings in the Agricultural Debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme

loan waiver may cost Uttar Pradesh at least ₹36,000 crore, which is 4.4 times the State’s capital expenditure of ₹8,191 crore (Budget estimate) in agriculture, including irrigation and flood management, in 2016-17. A similar amount spent on improvement of agriculture infrastructure and other developmental activities would create a base for future growth and development of the sector.

Swachh Bharat Mission is much more than a toilet construction program. Do you agree? In this context discuss the economic importance of Swacch Bharat Mission and critically evaluate the objectives achieved so far.

• The Mission is slowly transforming into a Jan Andolan, as was envisaged by the Prime Minister when he first spoke about it from the ramparts of the Red Fort.

• The SBM is not a toilet construction program but a behavior change mass movement.

• Since the launch of the program in October 2014, the sanitation coverage in rural India has gone up from 42 per cent to over 63 per cent

• The number of people defecating in the open in rural India has come down from about 550 million to about 350 million

• 190,000 villages, 130 districts and three states have become open defecation free (ODF). The program is now well on track to achieve an ODF India by October 2, 2019. An estimated Rs 5000 crores has been earmarked for Swachhta-related activities by all Ministries in 2017- 18. Cleaning up of iconic places, such as the Golden Temple and Tirupati Temple, to international standards and of the gram panchayats along the Ganga are other examples of Swachhta being mainstreamed in other sectors and spaces

Economics of Investing in Swacch Bharat:

• The lack of sanitation is the leading cause of diarrhea among children under five, leading to stunting among children and also results in several preventable child deaths.

• A survey by World Bank has reported that due to lack of sanitation mental and physical development of 40% children are effected. Thus we are unable to leverage on the dividend of our human resource.

• The survey also says that there is a loss of 6% GDP due to lack of sanitation.

• According to a study by UNICEF, every household in the villages that are free from Open Defecation saves INR 50,000 per year. These savings are from out of thepocket expenses on the medicines and opportunity cost of time along with the increase in the longevity.

• Business sense in Integrated Solid Waste Management.

Discuss the India’s reservations on Belt and Road Initiative (B&RI). Do you agree that India’s firm stand on B&RI had closed the doors for diplomacy and made her an outlier in the region?

The primary purpose of Belt and Road initiative (B&RI) is to revive the ancient trade routes across Eurasia, South Asia and Indian Ocean region through China. India has following reservations on B&RI:

• B&RI’s flagship project is the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, which includes projects in the Gilgit-Baltistan region, ignoring India’s “sovereignty and territorial integrity”.

• B&RI infrastructure project structure smacks of Chinese neo-colonialism, and could cause an “unsustainable debt burden for communities” with an adverse impact on the environment in the partner countries.

• There is a lack of transparency in China’s agenda, indicating that New Delhi believes the B&RI is not just an economic project but one that China is promoting for political control.

These concerns are no doubt valid, and the refusal to join the B&RI till China addresses the objection over Gilgit-Baltistan is understandable. Nonetheless, each of India’s neighbours, with the exception of Bhutan, has signed up for the B&RI, expecting to see billions of dollars in loans for projects including roads, rail, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, electricity and telecommunications connectivity. India has firmly decided to remain away from this initiative even as an observer. This effectively closes the door for diplomacy.

Many multilateral organizations like Asian Infrastructure Development Bank have endorsed the initiative. Even the UN Secretary General has validated and praised B&RI. India should not simply sit out the project. It must actively engage with China to have its particular grievances addressed, articulate its concerns to other partner countries in a more productive manner, and take a position as an Asian leader.

“Indian needs a tri-directional foreign policy to accommodate the three key pillars of West Asia —Saudi Arabia, Iran and Israel.” Comment

West Asia is vital for India’s energy security. Apart from this the region hosts largest number of Indian immigrants who fetch significantly high remittance. Nonetheless, the region is inherently unstable. The two major conflicts that had destabilized the region are: one, Arab-Jews conflict over Palestine and two the Shia-Sunni strife.

Israel, the only Jew state surrounded by the Muslim majority countries is the stakeholder in the Arab-Jews conflict. India’s proximity to Israel might antagonize the other Arab countries of the region. Likewise Saudi Arabia is the de-facto leader of the Sunni community in the region while Iran with its Shia majority champions the cause of Shia community. Thus, India needs a tri-directional foreign policy to accommodate the three key pillars of West Asia i.e. Saudi Arabia, Iran and Israel.

For India cordial relations with Saudi Arabia, Iran and Israel are quintessential to perpetuate its national interests. For instance relationship with Iran is critical for areas like energy resources and access to Central Asia. Iran can also play pivotal role to counterbalance Chinese influence in the region as India has been co-operating with Iran in developing its Chabahar port as a response to China’s attempt to develop Gwadar port in Pakistan. Saudi Arabia is the home of large number of India’s diaspora. The relationship with Saudi Arabia is also important for the energy security. Relationship with Israel is vital as a reliable provider of defense equipment’s and in areas like agricultural technology and water treatment. But India’s proximity with anyone of these at the cost of others may backfire. Thus India needs a tri-directional foreign policy to accommodate the three key pillars of West Asia.

The persisting drives of the government for development of large industries in backward areas have resulted in isolating the tribal population and the farmers who face multiple displacements With Malkangiri and Naxalbari foci discuss the correctives

Civil Services Exams 2015 (200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

The implementation of mega projects and industries in the name of “development” in the remote and tribal areas at times ironically further marginalises the local communities and tribal population. Malkangiri and Naxalbari are cases in point where development induced displacement of tribal population and local communities has given the impetus to the Left Wing Extremism.

The following corrective strategies must be implemented:

Making development more inclusive: The local communities and tribal population are severely affected in the development of mega industries and other projects. The development and industrialisation should not take place at the cost of the local communities. The government must ensure that all the stakeholders get the benefits of the development.

Proper compensation: There are many instances across the country where the proper compensation is neither quantified nor the promised one is given to the local population. At times the local tribal population has to give up it's forest and community rights which are the lifeline of these communities. The establishment must ensure that compensation is properly quantified and delivered to the local population.

Strengthening democratic institutions and people’s participation: The local and grassroots institutions like Gram Sabha, Palli Sabha, Village Panchayats should be further strengthened. These institutions should play the decisive role in decision making related to the development projects, land acquisitions and quantifications of the compensation.

Socio-cultural dynamics: For the tribal and local communities the forests, animals and land are not just economic assets but they are their way of life. These communities are culturally and emotionally attached to the forests and land.  The administration and government must be sensitive to this aspect of the life of local communities as well.

Religious indoctrination via social media has resulted in Indian youth joining the ISIS What is ISIS and its mission how can ISIS be dangerous to the internal security of our country

Civil Services Exams 2015 (200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

ISIS is an acronym that stands for Islamic State for Iraq and Syria (ISIS)- a religious fundamentalist terrorist group. Earlier, the name of ISIS was only Islamic State (IS) but later its name has been changed to ISIS.

Its mission is to bring the regions of Iraq and Syria under Islamic rule through illegal and terrorist ways. It also aspires to bring other regions of the world under direct Islamic rule. It has very serious intentions of spreading radical Islamic fundamentalist ideas across the world. It has also been indulged in other inhumane activities such as sex slavery, human trafficking, drug selling etc.

Presently, not only for India but for the entire world, it poses serious security threats. It is recruiting radical vulnerable youth across the world and thus, endangering the next generations too.

ISIS: a major threat to the national security

ISIS has radical religious background; therefore essentially it creates a divide among Indian people on religious sentiment. It threatens the social fabric of a diverse country like India. ISIS also been recruiting its fighters significantly from India online. Further, it washes-out the minds of youths from India by preaching radical inappropriate religious lectures.

The human development indices of Muslim population in India are lower than the national average. The incidence of poverty, unemployment and illiteracy among Muslim population in India is much higher than the national average. Any external trigger can easily alienate Muslim youths in the name of religion. Moreover, the   hostile neighbour and anti-India propaganda of its intelligence agencies in the name of religion can help ISIS to spread its ugly head.

The frequency of earthquakes appears to have increased in the Indian subcontinent However Indias preparedness for mitigating their impact has significant gaps Discuss various aspects

Civil Services Exams 2015 (200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

India’s geological location makes it severely vulnerable to earthquakes. Though the entire country is classified and identified by a number of earthquakes zones measuring the intensity of earthquakes yet the country is susceptible to mild to severe earthquakes.

India’s mitigation strategies of mitigation of earthquakes have following lacunae:

LAW PASSED BUT NOT IN EFFECT: Institutional failures

2005 law on disaster management has been put into effect at the national level, it exists only on paper in a few states and districts. The act created a National Disaster Management Authority, with the power to allocate resources and supervise disaster management across the country. A national disaster response force was also formed for rescue and evacuation. In addition, the act authorised the government to strengthen existing infrastructure in disaster-prone areas and help create an early-warning system. But none of them has been implemented effectively. The situation is so that our armed forces have become only as disaster relief force. National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) personnel are too low in strength and are poorly trained.


GOs and the civil society too have an important role in creating a State-society partnership for ramping up disaster preparedness and prevention among the public. After all, such systems would only work with imaginative planning and community preparedness — both crucial for emergency responses at the national, state, district, and city levels.


The crucial issue of earthquake education must be addressed with the seriousness it deserves. The dos and don’ts to be observed during and after a quake, for instance, should be properly communicated to people to minimise losses. It would also be a good idea to have regular earthquake drills, with emergency alerts broadcast over radio, TV, and social networks about what to do when the ground starts shaking.

Discuss the various economic and socio cultural forces that are driving increasing feminization of agriculture in India

Civil Services Exams 2014 (200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

As per an estimate, about 60 percent of the total operations in the agriculture and the allied sectors are managed by women in India.

Land and other farming assets in rural communities in India are owned by male members. They have full control over the female members of the family as well. In such scenario, its very natural low value and labour intensive work would be delegated to the women.

The unequal wage rates in country biased against the women makes them relatively economical compared to the male counterpart. In terms of growth rate and capital formation, the agriculture sectors lack far behind the manufacturing and service sector. The male work force is more mobile and readily migrates to urban centres to search for gainful employment in the non-agriculture sectors. On the other hand, woman workforce which lacks skills and access to the formal education due to patriarchal prejudices is left with very limited options apart from engaging in the agriculture and allied activities.

In the patriarchal society like India, where male member is considered to be the primary bread earner while the woman is deemed to be responsible for the child-rearing and household chores, the rural woman has to essentially find work place near her home. This further retards her mobility in non-agriculture sectors and leads to increasing feminization of agriculture in India.

The size of the cabinet should be as big as governmental work justifies and as big as the Prime Minister can manage as a team How far the efficacy of a government then is inversely related to the size of the cabinet Discuss

Civil Services Exams 2014 (200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

The cabinet in a Westminster type government is essentially highest decision-making body in the country. Therefore, well qualified deliberativeness as well as fast decision making ability should be two essential attributes of this body

From deliberativeness perspective, a cabinet should have enough number of ministers so that each issue could be discussed at length but this should not be misunderstood and implemented as unnecessary expansion of cabinet. An unnecessarily expanded cabinet slows down the decision making ability and cause policy paralysis. A size of a cabinet is considered reasonable as long as it works as a team under full control of the Prime Minister and justifies governmental work with efficacy in decision making.

In modern age, the dynamism has increased in administration and policy formulation, thus the decision making process has become much more complex, swift and adaptive. However, this demands an efficient informed cabinet and not necessarily a big one. In wake of increased complexity in decision making process, the excessively large cabinet can cause greater frequent logjams in decision making and hence, policy paralysis. While forming cabinet, it is always preferable that quality should prevail over the quantity (of ministers).

Bring out the relationship between the shrinking Himalayan glaciers and the symptoms of climate change in the Indian sub continent

Civil Services Exams 2014 (200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

Himalayan glaciers have a significant influence on prevailing climate in the Indian subcontinent. The recent phenomenon of shrinking glaciers on the Himalayas has affected the climate in the subcontinent to a greater extent.

Most of Himalayan Rivers in India are fed by glaciers of India. In such scenario, the increased rate of melting of ice on the Himalayas has resulted into increased water amount in Himalayan Rivers. Sometimes, it has increased so much so, that some states even had to face floods and unprecedented change in weather. Also shrinking glaciers have exposed Himalayan plateaus directly to sunlight creating exact opposite atmospheric conditions on the Himalayas. This has not only affected the atmospheric conditions in the northern region of the subcontinent but has also affected the rainfall patterns in the subcontinent. Irregular rainfall patterns are also one of the symptoms of shrinking glaciers on the Himalayas.

One of the prime functions of Himalaya’s glaciers on Indian climate is that it bars the Siberian chilled winds from entering into the Indian subcontinent.  Recently, the average lowest temperatures have increased in the Indian subcontinent, which shows that the height of Himalayan peaks is decreasing. Shrinking of Himalayan glaciers may be one of the reasons behind it.

Tropical cyclones are largely confined to the South China Sea Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Mexico Why

Civil Services Exams 2014 (200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

All three regions South China Sea, Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Mexico are essentially in the tropical zone.  The following are the reasons for a large number of cyclones:

Temperature: Water temperatures in these regions are always greater than 26.5 °C, which is pre requisite for the formation of tropical cyclones. In other waters in tropical regions, temperature vary accordingly to the prevailing weather.

The atmosphere in these regions unstable enough to sustain convection and thunderstorms: The ideal atmospheric conditions provide heat of condensation that powers a tropical cyclone.

High humidity:  Atmosphere in these regions comprised high humidity, which is necessary for tropical cyclones to be formed

Low amounts of wind shear: low amounts of wind shear as high shear is disruptive to the storm's circulation.

Location factor: For tropical cyclones to be formed, a distance from the Equator is necessary, which should be at least 555 km or 5° of latitude, so that it allows the Coriolis effect to deflect winds blowing towards the low pressure centre and creating a circulation. Because the Coriolis effect initiates and maintains tropical cyclone rotation, tropical cyclones rarely form or move within about 5° of the equator, where the Coriolis effect is weakest.​

How do the Indian debates on secularism differ from the debates in the West

Civil Services Exams 2014 (200 Words, 12.5 Marks)

The Secularism was originally conceptualised is the West. When this concept was incorporated in the Indian constitution many of its nuances and connotations got altered because of the socio-economic and cultural contexts.

Secularism in West draws a watertight compartment between the religion and state. Religion is considered to be an individualistic belief and is envisaged not to play any role in the governance.  The state thus keeps religion at an arm’s length. In various countries like France, any demonstration of religious symbolism in public is considered illegal.

In medieval times, the Church and Pope in Europe had access to immense power and had their domination over both religion and politics. Modern day politics and nation states in West aroused after dismantling the hegemony of Church.  Thus there is a tacit antagonism between the religion and state in the West. On the other hand religion in India has been an integral part of the life of the people. It’s hard to separate religion from any realm of day-to-day life in India. Interestingly, despite this importance, the priestly class and religious institution never dominated the politics. Rather the ruling class used religion as an instrument to legitimise their status and supremacy. Thus Indian secularism can be best described to be based on the Gandhian principle of “Sarv dharam sam bhav” i.e. promoting all religion equally.

In nut shell, Secularism in India means equal treatment of all religions by the state while in West it means strict dichotomy between state and religion.

In the integrity index of Transparency International India stands very low Discuss briefly the legal political economic social and cultural factors that have caused decline in public morality in India

Civil Service Exams 2016, (200 words, 12.5 Marks) 

The various causative factors for the decline in public morality are as:

Political factors

The prevalence of identity and caste based politics takes the developmental agenda at the back seat as a result lot of money and muscle power is required to influence the elections. Many a times the political parties are funded by the criminals and dubious sources, this gives birth to the criminal-politician nexus and result into fountain head for corruption and decline in public morality. The ideology deficits among politicians in Indian politics also accelerate such tendencies.


The legal institutional arrangements in India to tackle corruption like Lokpal, Lokayukt, CVC etc. lack teeth and efficiency. The grief ventilating mechanisms and delivery of justice are very slow and expansive. The conviction rate in the country is one of the lowest in the world. Existence of corruption in law enforcement agencies and judiciary further debase public morality.

Economic, Social and Cultural

Corruption in India has become a low risk and high premium venture. The materialist and hedonist outlook, glopping consumerism in the society coupled with the education system whose sole aim is make students “employable” to industry has led to decline in moral values and ethics.

Indian mind-set is now marred with “sanskritization of corruption” i.e. people who acquire wealth and resources by questioning means are not discriminated. Also there are various mythsprevalent  in Indian culture if one commits millions of sins as a penance just uttering “Ram” or visiting shrines like “holy Ganga” are sufficient to transform one into an innocent being. 

Has the Indian governmental system responded adequately to the demand of Liberalization Privatization and Globalization started in 1991 What can government do to be responsive to this important change

Civil Service Exams 2016, (200 words, 12.5 Marks) 

The governmental response to the demands of neo-liberal era can be considered as mixed. Nonetheless there are many realms where the responsiveness can be improved to a great extent.

The changed role

The government has to act like a facilitator and regulator to be responsive in the neo-liberal era.

As a facilitator government has to ensure an “enabling environment” and level “playing fields” for the non-state actors to flourish. In response to this although the country has seen the end of licence and permit Raj but still as the environment for businesses in India cannot be considered as world class. Lack of adequate infrastructure and archaic labour laws, permissions from various governmental agencies are still deemed as road blocks. It’s not surprising that rank of India in indices like “Ease of Doing Business” is still far behind the small Asian peers like Bhutan and Sri Lanka.

As a regulator the government has to ensure that markets behave in the people friendly manner. It’s a fact that market inherently are not people friendly and they have to be made so by proper regulations. However, in terms of the regulation the country has witnessed a dismal trend. Due to improper and lack of regulation we have seen various examples of emerging crony capitalism in the country. The Coal Scam, 3G Scam etc. are some case in points.

The road ahead

The small but strong government is need of the hour. The government should encourage network approach in the governance along with apt practices like downsizing, rightsizing, strengthening citizen charter etc. Devolution, decentralization and ensuring transparency will also make government responsive for the neoliberal era

In the Indian governance system the role of non state actors has been only marginal Critically examine this statement

Civil Service Exams 2016, (200 words, 12.5 Marks) 

After the 1991 reforms with the roll-back of the state, the role of non-state actors like market and Civil Society is gradually increasing in the governance. While the roles of these actors are relatively low vis-à-vis other developed countries but it would be misnomer to accept that the role has been marginal.

Role of market in governance: the increasing trend

After the 1991 reforms, the state ideally has to roll back itself as the direct provider of the goods and services to the citizens. It is expected that this void would be filled by market and civil society. The governance system has witnessed the enlarged role of market in this context.

Apart from the handful sectors which are strategically important like railway, law and order and defence the market (private sector) has penetrated deep inside the governance system. The sectors like health, education, food processing, telecommunication, retail etc. are dominated by the market. Today it’s impossible to image a robust governance system without market.

Role of Civil Society

Akin to market the role of civil society has also observed to be on an increasing trend. In the social sector the civil society in India is playing a remarkable. Apart from the direct provider of goods and services, the civil society is also involved in advocacy, shaping public policy and other interventions. All the major developmental schemes targeting for the social sector today recognise civil society as an important stake holder in the socio-economic development.

Traditional bureaucratic structure and culture has hampered the socio economic development in India

Civil Service Exams 2016, (200 words, 12.5 Marks) 

The structure of Indian bureaucracy is based on the traditional Weberian Model while the culture of colonial era still lingers on our bureaucracy, making it non responsive and status-quoist. 

Indian bureaucracy is based on classical Weberian model and is expected to be neutral, impersonal, hierarchical and rule oriented. This model was apt for the administration in 19th-20th century where the primary purpose of bureaucracy was to maintain the status quo. In 21st century the paradigm of governance has completely changed. The need of the hour is the bureaucracy that is goal oriented, sensitive towards the needs of the citizens and is adaptive to face the challenges of the globalized world. The obsession for rules rather than outcomes has infused malice like red tape and unresponsiveness in bureaucracy hampering the pace of socio-economic development.

Indian bureaucrats like in the British Raj are still expected to be the passive masters of citizenry. Ideally they should be co-actors in the development process. This has created a huge cleavage between ordinary citizens and bureaucracy and at times the developmental works done by bureaucracy are either redundant, irrelevant or does not match the popular aspiration. Apart from the culture of nepotism, favouritism and primarily serving the vested interest of political masters also makes the bureaucracy insensitive towards the socio-economic development of the citizens.

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